[19] The 10 megawatt prototype is called the HTR-10 . 6.7 cm or 2.6 in in diameter) are made of pyrolytic graphite (which acts as the moderator), and they contain thousands of micro-fuel particles called TRISO particles. The government decided to terminate the THTR operation at the end of September, 1989. Nuclear Industry Huaxing Construction and Nuclear Industry 23 Construction carried out nuclear plant civil installation together with China Nuclear E & C Group and China Engineering Group Zhejiang Thermal Power Construction. Construction costs of AVR were 115 million Deutschmark (1966), corresponding to a 2010 value of 180 million €. There was a pebble bed reactor accident at Hamm-Uentrop West Germany nine days after the Chernobyl accident. [17], The overly complex design of the reactor, which is contrary to the general concept of self moderated thorium reactors designed in the U.S., also suffered from the unplanned high destruction rate of pebbles during the test series at the start up, and the resulting higher contamination of the containment structure. These are part of the safety of the overall design, and thus require extensive safety systems and redundant backups. [21] In September 2009 the demonstration power plant was postponed indefinitely. A pebble is recycled from the bottom to the top about ten times over a few years, and tested each time it is removed. China’s Nuclear Engineering Construction Corporation wants to introduce a high temperature, pebble-bed, gas-cooled nuclear reactor, in the Shandong Province, south of the capital, Beijing. In December 2012, the HTR-PM demonstration project received the construction permit from the National Nuclear Safety Administration, marking the official start of construction with the pouring of the first concrete for the first unit. The reactor has inherent safety with fourth-generation safety features. Doppler broadening therefore creates a negative feedback: as fuel temperature increases, reactor power decreases. Nearly every problem encountered by the THTR 300 reactor was predicted by the physicists that criticized it as "overly complex. These safety features were tested (and filmed) with the German AVR reactor. Pebble Bed Modular Reactor - What is PBMR? China is poised to develop the world's first commercially operated “pebble bed” nuclear reactor after a Chinese energy consortium chose a site in the eastern province of Shandong to build a 195MW gas-cooled power plant. Simplified design of pebble bed reactor (Source: Wikimedia Commons) China has a 23 nuclear power plants operating, with another 27 third-generation plants under construction. Similarly, the moderator is solid carbon; it does not act as a coolant, move, or have phase transitions (i.e., between liquid and gas) as the light water in conventional reactors does. China's Tsinghua University has built a 10 MW research pebble bed reactor, achieving criticality in 2000. Operators subsequently caused damage to the fuel during attempts to free the pebble. 4, pp.330–345", NGNP Point Design – Results of the Initial Neutronics and Thermal-Hydraulic Assessments During FY-03. In particular China plans to build and additional 50 nuclear reactors in the next 10 years. The plant, designated as HTR-PM, will be a 200 MWe pebble bed reactor heated steam plant with two reactors, each with a single steam generator (boiler) feeding a single turbine. SNPTC incorporated feedback from the Fukushima power plant accident and designed the reactor with improved safety features and thermal safety margin of more than 15%. Some examples of this type of reactor are claimed to be passively safe;[1] that is, it removes the need for redundant, active safety systems. The reactor is a pebble-bed, high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), a new design that is ostensibly safer but that researchers in the U.S. and Germany warn does not eliminate the possibility of a serious accident. Windscale had a program of regular annealing in place to release accumulated Wigner energy, but since the effect was not anticipated during the construction of the reactor, and since the reactor was cooled by ordinary air in an open cycle, the process could not be reliably controlled, and led to a fire. Some contamination was also found in soil/groundwater under the reactor, as the German government confirmed in January, 2010. The uranium, thorium or plutonium nuclear fuels are in the form of a ceramic (usually oxides or carbides) contained within spherical pebbles a little smaller than the size of a tennis ball and made of pyrolytic graphite, which acts as the primary neutron moderator. The PBMR is a variant of the HTGR. Also, it is automatic and does not depend on any kind of machinery or moving parts. The fuel then sees a wider range of relative neutron speeds. CAP1400 is a pressurised water reactor (PWR) with 1,500MW electric power. One cause for the closing was an accident on 4 May 1986, only a few days after the Chernobyl disaster, with a limited release of the radioactive inventory into the environment. The high-temperature reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM) is a new generation modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) with an outer diameter of 3m and a height of 11m. J. Beijing’s Tsinghua University has been running a small experimental pebble-bed reactor on campus since 2003 and has worked on the technology in cooperation with researchers at Simply piling enough pebbles together in a critical geometry will allow for criticality. [citation needed] Current US legislation requires all waste to be safely contained, therefore pebble-bed reactors would increase existing storage problems. China National Nuclear Corporation has announced completion of cold functional tests at the first reactor of the demonstration high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant (HTR-PM) in Shandong province. Skip to comments. The reactor is cooled by an inert, fireproof gas, so it cannot have a steam explosion as a light-water reactor can. While silicon carbide is strong in abrasion and compression applications, it does not have the same strength against expansion and shear forces. [8] Its strength and hardness come from anisotropic crystals of carbon. 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