The post-colonial is neocolonial in the Indian Ocean region: the case of Chagos seen through the African-centred decolonial theoretical lens. African star apple farming in Nigeria is yet to enjoy the attention that has been showered on other fruits. The adsorption data used to support the findings of this study are included within the supplementary information file (available here). This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. The data obtained were fitted to adsorption isotherm models. However, activation with ZnCl2 performed better with about 70% removal of dye than that of CaCl2 and MgCl2. Table of the FTIR results of the Oil showing the various frequencies, % transmittance and their functional assignments. Adsorption tests were carried out in 2L Erlenmeyer flask using 1g each of shells activated with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. Africa Review, Volume 12, Issue 2 (2020) Articles . This is different from values of 2.57 mg/KOH/g by Musa, Isah [30], 4.50 mg/KOH/g for Adebayor, Orhevba [27], and 19.70 mg/KOH/g for Ominyi, Ominyi [31]. The African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) is a kind of fruit that is grown in Ghana. The refractive index of the extracted oil was 1.464 which agreed with that of 1. To remind us all of the humanity of these refugees, and perhaps shed a little light on their experience, below are a few recommendations for great works of literature either written by refugees, or about the refugee experience, or both—not, of course, an exhaustive list by … There are several fruits in Ghana that have essential oils which are of great medical importance. The results showed an average oil yield obtained of 11.6%, specific gravity of 0.92kg/m3, the refractive index of 1.464 at 30°C, an acid value of 7.72 mg KOH/g, a free fatty acid value of 3.16 g/100g, saponific… ‎This course is a study of the periods and major genres of African-American Literature – poetry, prose, drama, vernacular tradition, essays, and non-fiction. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.04.004. They are known by a variety of different names such as golden-leaf tree, caimito maduraverde in Spain, caimite and caimitier in France and cainito and ajara in Portugal. This indicates that the seed may not be a good source of abundant oil. Sapotaceae ), African star apple is a popular tropical fruit tree that is widely distributed throughout the southern part of Nigeria. This could be attributed to the active vacant sites within the activated shells as reported by [40]. Apple’s 1997 “Think Different” marketing campaign was one of its most memorable ever. Imaginative and inspiring, Author Wilson Ayinbangya Amooro displays a refreshing and unique literary style th… From a nutritional perspective, the African star apple is a rich source of calcium, with each serving providing up to 10% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Literature in the African continent has its basis mainly in the traditions of South African, Francophone and Anglophone literatures. Ripe African Star Apples are savoury-sweet and tart in taste. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to identify the various functional groups present in the oil. The dried seeds were milled using a laboratory rotary mill (IKA M20 Universal Mill). The extract was then heated to recover the solvent with a rotary evaporator (R00102439, 50W/15A) leaving behind the extracted oil. In good oil, the acid value should be very low (< 0.1) and an increase in acid value is an indicator of oxidation of the oil which may lead to gum and sludge formation beside corrosion. Similarly, [13] investigated into the extraction and characterisation of the seed oil. The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) assists developing countries to design and deliver climate compatibledevelopment. Apple Inc Report contains a full analysis of Apple corporate social responsibility including Apple CSR issues. The overall performance of the three shells shows that ZnCl2 performed slightly better than MgCl2 in reducing the concentration of Methyl orange in the solution. African literature is literature of or from Africa and includes oral literature (or "orature", in the term coined by Ugandan scholar Pio Zirimu).. As George Joseph notes in his chapter on African literature in Understanding Contemporary Africa, whereas European views of literature often stressed a separation of art and content, African awareness is inclusive: From literature, most of the research works done are from Nigeria and the shells have all been used in the removal of heavy metals. A Mohammed et al., “Extraction of chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimisation and characterisation,”, C. E. Ominyi, C. J. Ominyi, and U. Nwali, “Extraction, characterization and fatty acid profile of African star apple seed (chrysophyllum albidum) oil,” in, S. R. Antony, D. S. smart, and C. R. Lee, “Biodiesel production from jatroph a oil and its characterization,”, T. F. Akinhanmi, V. N. Atasie, and P. O. Akintokun, “Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of cashew nut (, U. D. Akpabio and I. Akpan, “Extraction and characterization of oils from avocado pear (persea americana) and native pear (dacryodes edulis) fruits,”, E. Akbar, Y. Zahira, K. K. Siti, I. Manal, and S. Jumat, “Characteristics and composition of jatropha curcas oil seed from malaysia and its potential as biodiesel feedstock,”, S. M. Mahale and A. S. Goswami-Giri, “Composition and characterization of refined oil compared with its crude oil from waste obtained from mangifera indica,”, J. M. Nzikou, L. Matos, G. Bouanga-Kalou et al., “Chemical composition on the seeds and oil of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) grown in Congo-Brazzaville,”, E. Zahir, R. Saeed, M. A. Hameed, and A. Yousuf, “Study of physicochemical properties of edible oil and evaluation of frying oil quality by Fourier Transform-Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy,”, S. Anwer, El-Badry., and S. S. Ali, “Essential oils: a promising remedy against fungal and bacterial human Keratitis,”, D. K. Kowanga, G. O. Mauti, and E. Mbaka, “Effect of crude and defatted Moringa oliefera seeds as natural coagulants in the removal of physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters from turbid river water,”, S. Oscar, “Physico-chemical properties of oil from some selected underutilized oil seeds available for biodiesel preparation,”. Various agricultural products, such as coconut shell [15, 17], rice husk [18], groundnut husk [19], cassava peels [20], pecan shells [21], and tea wastes [22], have been reported to be effective in the remediation in wastewaters. 46 and 1.672 at 31.2°C for Adebayor, Orhevba [27]. African star apple – also known as white star apple, “cherry”, agbalumo (Yoruba), udara (Igbo) and otien (Edo) – in Nigeria, is associated with the dry season. This was placed in a heating mantle at 65°C and the liquid condensate dripped into the thimble which contained the milled sample. How Star Apple is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The option of multiple revisions will help you polish the paper for free and turn it … FTIR analysis also revealed that the oil contains several functional groups such as the alkenes and aromatics which may be beneficial to the human body. Albidum to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction of the oil and also to characterize the oil extracted and determine its physicochemical properties. This is represented by the following:Integrating the above equation with boundary conditions of t=0, qt=0, and t=t, qt=qt gives the following:where k2 represents the rate constant and qt is the uptake capacity at any time (t). The pseudo-first-order equation fitted the experimental data well for CaCl2 (R2 = 0.94) while MgCl2 (R2 = 0.97) and ZnCl2 (R2 = 0.97) fitted the pseudo-second-order equation. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. It is also not as thick as most drying oils whose refractive indices fall between 1.475 and 1.485 [33]. The equilibrium rate constants and correlation coefficient for the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models are presented in Table 3. The high saponification value can be attributed to process parameters such as extraction time, the temperature of extraction, and particle sizes of the milled seeds as reported by [36]. Methyl orange with a concentration of 0.2mg/L and 0.5mg/L was prepared and used as the adsorbent for this study. Hence, the amount of solute sorbed per gram of sorbent at equilibrium (qe) and the first-order rate constant (k1) can be evaluated from the slope and intercept. Many consume it as just a fruit, without knowing the nutritional benefits. The report illustrates the application of the major analytical strategic frameworks in business studies such as SWOT, PESTEL, Porter’s Five Forces, Value Chain analysis, Ansoff Matrix and McKinsey 7S Model on Apple. The physical and chemical properties of the extracted oil data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article. Pseudo-first-order adsorption kinetics of the dye. An acceptable FS with good anti-stress potential has been developed to further expand the utilization for ASA. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions. The dried seeds were further air-dried for 5 days and then oven-dried at a temperature of 100°C for 24 hours in a laboratory oven (MMM Medcenter Ecocell 55). Literature Review. The oil of Chrysophyllum albidum has been extracted from the corresponding seeds in a soxhlet extractor with hexane (boiling point range: 55°C-65°C) and analyzed for moisture content, pH, specific gravity, saponification value, refractive index, peroxide value, acid number, free fatty acid, and iodine value by [12]. It was then pyrolyzed in a furnace (Nabertherm, LE140K1BN, 230V, 1/N/PE) at a temperature of 500°C for two hours. The FTIR analysis of the extracted oil was also found to contain some functional groups. African star apple is one of source to do a Diabetes Treatments With Natural Sources and Activities. Literature Review Of African Star Apple In case you are not satisfied with the level of professionalism of Literature Review Of African Star Apple your writer, you can easily change the writer. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of statement or the study’s goals or purpose. Supplement significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde). Development into an acceptable food supplement (FS) with anti-stress potentials has not been explored. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Former : Steve Jobs. Some other researchers [14] investigated into the effect of process variables (particle size, temperature, and time) on the extraction of oil from Nigerian Chrysophyllum. First of all, Apple’s product line encompasses a series of brilliant and distinctive products, such as Mac (Macintosh), iPod, iPhone and iPad; and in the mean time the designers of Apple Inc. are improving and innovating on their product line constantly. In parts of Anambra and Imo States, this tree (African Star Apple) forms the focal point or venue for a fertility rite, in which young girls, childless wives celebrates a festivity – eating, singing and dancing for the sole purpose of praying to the gods of birth, this is a gesture of charity, since children are freely entertained without discrimination or distinction. The adsorption studies of Methyl orange dye solution of the fruit shell of the Chrysophyllum albidum activated with MgCl2, CaCl2, and ZnCl2 were performed. (Chairman, 1976-1985, 2011; CEO, 1997–2011)( Current :Tim Cook. Adsorption has advantages over other methods of remediation of heavy metals from wastewater because its design is simple; it is sludge-free and can be of low capital intensive [15]. Botanically called Chrysophyllum albidum (Fam. The Fourier Transform Infrared data used to identify the various functional groups regarding the oil of this study are included within the article. Chemical activation with CaCl2 seems not to perform as efficient as that of the ZnCl2 and MgCl2 as shown in Figure 2. Examples of some plant seeds which have been conventionally exploited commercially for this purpose include soybeans, cotton seed, groundnut, corn, palm seeds, and sunflower [4]. More extensive information about the journal is available here. From Figure 2, it is observed that the rate of dye reduction generally increased rapidly within the first two hours of contact time for all three shells with different activation chemicals. The Apple Valley Review is an online literary journal. Most plant seeds are a source of essential oils. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. It was performed to determine the various functional groups of the chemical components using the Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Model I-R Prestige 21 Shimadzu. This research work was self-funded by the authors. Dr Lisa Schipper and Lara Langston. 2019, Article ID 4959586, 8 pages, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4959586, 1Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, 2Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana. Description: As the official publication of the Division on Black American Literature and Culture of the Modern Language Association, the quarterly journal African American Review promotes a lively exchange among writers and scholars in the arts, humanities, and social sciences who hold diverse perspectives on African American literature and culture. A Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) study on the oil identified some triglycerides, carbonyl, alkane, and alkene compounds. It is published twice annually, once in spring and once in fall. It is a small-to-medium tree species, up to a height of 25-37 m having a mature girth varying from 1.5 to 2.0 m [2]. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Star Apple. Copyright © 2019 Michael A. Anang et al. The straight-line plot of log (qe-qt) against t gives log (qe) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303. The tree grows as a wild plant and belongs to the family of Sapotaceae which has up to 800 species and constitutes almost half of the order [1]. African star Apple based food supplement with general acceptability was developed. The iodine value of the extracted oil was measured and found to be 72.8 mg/KOH/g. B. Paiko, “Effects of solvent blending on the characteristics of oils extracted from seeds of Chrysophyllu, albidium,”, G. Nimet, “Extraction of sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.) oil with supercritical CO2 and subcritical propane: Experimental and modelling,”, G. Cao, E. Sofic, and R. L. Prior, “Antioxidant capacity of tea and common vegetables,”, H. Wang, G. H. Cao, and R. L. Prior, “Total antioxidant capacity of fruits,”, Y. S. Velioglu, G. Mazza, L. Gao, and B. D. Oomah, “Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products,”, F. M. Oloyede and F. A. Oloyede, “The Antioxidant and Food value of Chrysophyllum albidium,”, D. S. Olorunnisola, “Anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of chrysophyllum albidum seed cotyledon in alloxan induced-diabetic rats,”, S. Sayyar, Z. This property makes the leaves/fruits useful medically, for the treatment of type two diabetes though … December 2014 . The acid value was also found to be 7.72 mg/KOH/g. Literature Review For Apple Inc Project. On the basis of the correlation coefficient, the adsorption of Methyl orange dye from solution by shells of Chrysophyllum albidum activated with CaCl2 follows a first-order reaction pathway while the shells activated with MgCl2 and ZnCl2 follows a second-order pathway. Rising intake of supplement positively correlated with Hepatoprotective activity. Studies were conducted by [25] on the effect of pH on the sorption of cadmium (ll), nickel (II), lead (II), and chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions by African white star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) shell and realised the process is highly pH-dependent. Blending with pre-gelatinized starch (pulp:starch, 7:3) followed, yielding the FS. The color was found to be deep red just as reported by Musa, Isah [30] but different from Adebayor, Orhevba [27] and Ominyi, Ominyi [31] who recorded it as red. The Star Apple is of the family Sapotaceae and relative of the mamey sapote and the green sapote. An investigation on the antioxidant and food value of Chrysophyllum albidum showed the plant contains some phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin, and proanthocyanidin and also a high antioxidant value [9]. Mean Sensory (taste) scores for food supplemented with FS (5.5 ± 1.17) compared favourably with the unsupplemented (6.2 ± 1.03). Adsorptive studies of the fruit shell for the removal of dye were also performed after chemical activation with CaCl2, MgCl2, and ZnCl2. The African star apple food supplement formulation was produced by blending African star apple pulp powder and pre-gelatinized starch in different ratios - 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, 5:5, 4:6, 3:7, 2:8, and 1:9 respectively. . The acid value is an important indicator of oxidation of the oil. African literature, an area where the relationship of the artist with the land is absolutely recognised and understood, covers a huge range of languages, cultures and colonial contexts. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of natural antioxidants, containing many different antioxidant components which provide protection against harmful free radicals which have been implicated in the aetiology of several human ailments such as cancer, neural disorders, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiovascular disorder [6–8]. Apple Inc.. ( formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. 20g of the pyrolised powdered shells was weighed and added to 250ml of the various activation chemical aqueous solutions. The spectral analysis as displayed in Figure 1 shows the various peaks of the functional groups present in the oil. The star apple tree is erect, 25 to 100 ft (8-30 m) tall, with a short trunk to 3 ft (1 m) thick, and a dense, broad crown, brown-hairy branchlets, and white, gummy latex. The dried shells were then activated in a furnace at a temperature of 550°C for 4 hours to complete the activation process of the Chrysophyllum albidum shells. LITERATURE REVIEW . Saponification value (SV) is related to the average molecular mass of fatty acid in the oil sample. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The experiment was conducted under room temperature of 25 C. The change in concentration of the dye with time could be seen in the date above. . Researchers suggest that the African star apple fruit also known locally as ‘Alasa’ is an edible fruit of uncommon nutritional value. It was however higher than that of Ominyi, Ominyi [31] which was 90.71 mg/KOH/g but lower for Musa, Isah [30] who reported 228.4 mg/KOH/g. 50ml of the solution is collected after an hour and filtered using a Whatman filter paper and the concentration of methyl orange in the filtrate measured using Shimadzu T70 UV-Vis spectrometer. ( Ronald Wayne. List of various diseases cured by Star Apple. Innovative spirit of Apple Inc. has been approved across the world. Writing a literature review is the next task in progressing with my Ph.D. African Star Apples are a type of fruit that grow in the Pride Lands. This is a seasonal fruit that is available during the dry seasons. Article. The fruits are not usually harvested from the trees, but left to drop naturally to the forest floor where they are picked [3]. (Supplementary Materials). The functional groups identified within the wavelength of 1709 – 1744 cm−1 were compared to oil from Chamomile and Rosemary by Anwer S. El-Badry, and Sameh S. Ali [39] as well as the Corn and Mustard oil to represent C= O ester carbonyl of triglycerides [39]. The oil yield was very low with a value of 11.6% as compared to that of 12% recorded by Adebayor, Orhevba [27], 8.05% and 12.70% for [30]. The seeds and roots extracts of Chrysophyllum albidum are used to arrest bleeding from fresh wounds and to inhibit microbial growth of known wound contaminants and also enhance the wound healing process [11]. Gender equality and Climate Compatible Development . This is the adsorption data that was used for this study. It is the weight (mg) of potassium hydroxide required to neutralize the free acid in 1 g of the oil. Selected major works and authors are taken from all the periods of African-American literature to show the breadth and variety of African-Ameri… This research work was undertaken to determine the physicochemical parameters of oil from the seeds of African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) and further evaluate the adsorptive properties of the fruit shell. B. Adelola, P. A. Aderemi, J. M. Jiya, and O. F. Jumoke, “Solvent extraction and characterisation of oil from african StarApple (Chrysophyllum albidum) seeds,”, M. Umaru, A. G. Isah, M. U. Garba, and U. Zelihatu, “Extraction of Chrysophyllum albidum seed oil: optimization and characterization,”, T. Viraraghvan and M. M. Dronamraju, “Removal of copper, nickel and zinc from wastewater by adsorption using peat,”, M. A. Amer, F. I. Khaili, and A. M. Awwad, “Adsorption of lead, zinc and cadmium ions on polyphosphate-modified kaolinite clay,”, G. Yan and T. Viraraghavan, “Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized, M. Dakiky, M. Khamis, A. Manassra, and M. Mer'eb, “Selective adsorption of chromium(VI) in industrial wastewater using low-cost abundantly available adsorbents,”, F. E. Okieimen, E. U. Okundia, and D. E. Ogbeifun, “Sorption of cadmium and lead ions on modified groundnut (Arachis hypogea) husks,”, A. Siphamandla Zondi. They are burnt orange fruits with small brown stems at the top. Extraction and Characterisation of African Star Apple (, Department of Chemistry, Industrial Chemistry Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, Department of Chemistry, Water and Sanitation Unit, School of Physical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana, R% is the percentage recovery of methyl orange from the solution, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/, J. E. Ehiagbonare, H. I. Onyibe, and E. E. Okoegwale, “Studies on the isolation of normal and abnormal seedlings of Chrysophyllum albidum: a step towards sustainable management of the taxon in the 21st century,”, N. A. Amusa, O. Effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format, 1976 by ( Steve Jobs constants and coefficient! T gives log ( qe ) as slope and intercept equal to k1/2.303 acid is! Mill ( IKA M20 Universal mill ) Apple ’ s goals or purpose several fruits in Ghana Spectroscopy used! 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